despite the fact that this conflict was primarily a land conflict, when Iraq invaded Kuwait and was subsequently pushed back.
۱.۹.۵ Arab Gulf
Arab Gulf is a fake name instead of the Persian Gulf that most Arab states but historically and internationally this area is known as the Persian Gulf (Boghrati, 2006). The name Gulf of Iran (Persian Gulf) is used by the International Hydrographic Organization (International-Hydrographic-Organization, 2010.). Since the beginning of human history as evidences shows, the Persian Gulf has been a valuable waterway as well as the center of the great civilizations of the ancient east; it has a background of several millenniums. The “Persian Gulf” name in Latin American geography encyclopedia books is “More Persicum” or “the Sea of Pars”. The Latin term of “Sinus Persicus” is equivalent to “Persicher golf” in French, “Persico qolf” in Italian, “Persidskizalir” in Russian, and “Perusha Wan” that all mean “Pars”. Previous to the residence of the Aryan Iranians on Iran’s Plateau, the Assyrians referred to the sea in their inscriptions as the “bitter sea” and this is the oldest name that was used for the Persian Gulf. Recently there was found an inscription of Darius in the Suez Canal, that mentioned the Persian Gulf with a mention of river Pars which points to the same Persian Gulf (Maziyar, 2000).
Herodotus, the Greek historian, referred to the Red Sea as the “Arab Gulf”. Straben, the Greek historian wrote: “Arabs are living between the Arabian Gulf and the Persian Gulf. Ptolemy, another Greek geographer of the second century has referred to the Red Sea as the “Arabicus Sinus”, means the Arabian Gulf (Maziyar, 2000).
۱.۹.۶ Unofficial policy
Unofficial policy is defined as a policy that countries are going to do or take it regarding to their local policy or another regions and countries but according to some of their interests they don’t declare it to the public opinion.
The word regime (also “régime”, from the original French pronunciation) refers to a set of conditions, most often of a political nature. In politics, a regime is the form of government: the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc. that regulates the operation of government and its interactions with society. While the word regime originates as a synonym for any form of government, modern usage often gives the term a negative connotation, implying an authoritarian government or dictatorship. Webster’s definition states that the word regime refers simply to a form of government or a government in power (Merriam-Webster-website, 2012). Oxford English Dictionary defines regime as “a government, especially an authoritarian one” (Oxford-English-Dictionary, 2012).
According to the nature of this study, the most appropriate method for conducting this research is qualitative method. This is because the qualitative method is an appropriate approach for the subjects which are immeasurable and with multiple constructions and unlike positivism assumption, social realities are not the fixed, understood or measurable phenomenon; instead, there are multiple interpretations of reality (Merriam, 2002) that are suitable to qualitative approaches.
The qualitative method is deemed more applicable than the quantitative one for the objectives of this research for two reasons. Firstly, the concept of foreign policy and security is a qualitative concept in nature and cannot be measured by the quantitative. So data collection and techniques of data analysis are based on the qualitative method. Secondly, an explanatory research is useful for research questions that start with “why” and “how-possible” (Little, 1991) such as the research questions in this study. In addition, a qualitative method can provide depth information of the topic. The strategy of this research is inductive, that is, the process of reasoning from whole to parts and aims to determine conclusions from premises (Menzies, 1996).
۱.۱۰.۱ Research data collection methods
The method of data collection in this research focuses on official documents such as: U.S. House, U.S. Congress, Arms Export Control Act, US annual state department report, Country Reports on Terrorism, Peterson Institute Documents, Middle East policy council and Stanley Foundation conferences. A significant part of the data will be derived from their speeches of American, Iranian and GCC leaders (presidents-kings-sheikhs) and their administrations, which are available online, in newspapers, political and international relations journals. Since this study is based on library research, particularly periodical literature, alongside the collected data, this study will also utilize data collected from materials such as books, theses, conference papers, printed and unprinted media, published and unpublished articles, internal and international reports, WebPages, periodicals, United Nations reports and governmental and non-governmental published reports.
Some of these data provide the historical and political background of security arrangements in the Persian Gulf since 1979 and some provide analytical explanation about political subjects especially the concept of regional security.
۱.۱۰.۲ Research Designs and Methods
This research is historical in that it emphasizes the history of the Persian Gulf security system arrangements since the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran. Case studies provide detailed contextual analyses of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships (Yin, 1984), so the structure of the Persian Gulf security system for the period from 1979 to 2008 and the barriers to a stable security system in this region as well as the roles of the U.S. and Islamic Republic of Iran in this area, as case studies, are investigated in this research.
۱.۱۰.۳ Sources of available Data
In terms of the theoretical approach of this research the main type of data collection is library research, with data gathered from library resources such as articles, books and documents written and published about the U.S. policies toward Iran in the Persian Gulf region. Indeed, journals, books and documents about the security system of the Persian Gulf form a dominant component in this study.
However, as in any qualitative study, the saturation and adequacy of data collection for analysis and the number of necessary approaches for study rest on the researcher, articles, books and official documents that are supposed to involve the main aspects of the research and the major concepts of the theoretical framework. Articles, books and official documents are utilized in relation to the following concepts: security, U.S. regional security policies, Iran’s role in the Persian Gulf security arrangements, and the structure of the security arrangement in the Persian Gulf from 1979 to 2008.
Sources of available data for this research are: A) Public documents and official records such as documents of the United States foreign affairs that have been published, (Persian) Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) resolutions, Iran, and United States of America’s foreign affairs declarations. B) Articles that has been published in international journals, websites and networks especially in Iran and America such as the Iranian Journal of International Affairs and the American Journal of International Affairs. C) Political science data archives including online data bases and libraries. D) Written speeches and statements of American, Iranian and GCC’s leaders (presidents-kings-sheikhs, administrations and politicians about Persian Gulf foreign policy such as speeches of President G. W. Bush, and statements by Iranian presidents (Hashemi Rafsanjani, Khatami, and Ahmadinejad).
۱.۱۰.۴ Techniques for collecting and analyzing data
Techniques for collecting data in this study are basically observational, based on written data such as books, journals, news websites and official documents like published speeches of presidents of the United States and Iran and also GCC leaders and declarations. Moreover, critical thinking outcomes from the Stanley Foundation conferences are an important source for this study, especially the conference that was held in September 2005 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), where the Stanley Foundation brought together