۳: Past Challenges to U.S. Interests in the Gulf 89
۴:U.S. MilitaryAssistance to Iran, 1965-1973 101
۵: GNP & military expenditures of Iran (1968-1980) 102
۶: NATO Contribution of Air forces in Desert Storm 213
LIST OF FIGURES
۱: The Middle East & Persian Gulf region 2
۲: Distribution of global Oil Reserves. (EIA, 2009) 5
۳: Regional Security Complex Theory 23
۴: Allied Participation in Coalition Operations 213
۵: Sorties Flown in Operation Allied Force and Operation Deliberate Force 214
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ASEAN: the Association of Southeast Asian Nation
ARF: ASEAN [the Association of Southeast Asian Nations] Regional Forum
BMDS: Ballistic Missile Defense System
CENTO: Central Treaty Organization
DOD: Department of Defense (America)
EIA: Energy Information Administration
G6: Group six including five permanent members of the United Nation’s Security Council (America, Russia China, Britain, France) plus Germany
GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council
GOIC: Gulf Organization for Industrial Consultancy
GRSF: [Persian] Gulf Regional Security Forum
I.R.IRAN: the Islamic Republic of Iran
IAEA: the International Atomic Energy Agency
ILSA: the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996
INP: Iran’s Nuclear Program
ICO: Islamic Conference Organization
ISA: Iran Sanctions Act
NAM: Non Aligned Movement
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NPT: treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
NW: Nuclear Weapon
OPEC: the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OSCE: the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
PA: Palestinian Authority
PLO: Palestinian Liberation Organization
RDJTF: Rapid Deployment Joint Task Forces.
RSCT: Regional Security Complex Theory
UAE: United Arab Emirates
UN: the United Nations
UNSC: the United Nations Security Council
UK: United Kingdom
USA: the United States of America
USCENTCOM: the U.S. Central Command
USSR: the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction
Since the withdrawal of United Kingdom forces from east of Suez and the Persian Gulf region in 1971, the security system of this region has been confronted with many challenges and the concerns about security have been reintroduced into the debate on the world order and enhanced the previous efforts of the United States of America to establish a balance of power security system against the Soviet Union. Furthermore, the end of formal domination of the United Kingdom since 1971 brought to the debate the issue of security studies and related questions in the Persian Gulf region.
The milestone of the Persian Gulf security developments is occurrence of the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 that challenged the US interests in the Persian Gulf. In this regard, as the Persian Gulf had an important role to the U.S. economy and industry the U.S. policymakers took different policies toward Iran and Persian Gulf region but these policies have always been faced with serious challenges from Iran and other countries in the region. This study seeks to evaluate the influences of the US security regional policies toward the Persian Gulf after the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Also it evaluates the influences of the struggle between the U.S. and Iran in the Persian Gulf. This chapter will develop a definition of regional security and the vital role of peace and security among regions and nations. In addition, it will present a brief history of the US regional security policies in the Persian Gulf region. Finally, it will discuss the statement of the problem, research questions, research objectives and the significance of the study.
Figure 1: The Middle East & Persian Gulf region
Source: indymedia.org.uk (2012)
۱.۲ Background of the Study
Regional security and the interdependence of security have always been at the core of security studies by scholars in this field. In security systems studies, states are the basic units in the international system and their autonomy is affected by the regional sub-systems. In the state-centric view, the basic assumption is that states are the primary actors in the international system and are also the legitimate providers of security. In a region like the Persian Gulf, regional states of the Persian Gulf area (Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman), have a vital role in security policies of the region.
On the other hand, super powers and external powers in important regions of the world including Persian Gulf region have their benefits and interests. In this regard, they want to create a balance of power in favor of themselves and in this process, they attempt to maintain or change the security systems of such regions. Logic of balance of power is penetration of external powers in these regions and penetration is caused by indigenous regional rivalry among local states in the regions. So securization and desecurization of each state in the region is in interaction with other states of the region and finally this interaction leads to national security of all regional states.
The background of the study will be discussed in three parts: the importance of the Persian Gulf geopolitics, US past attempts for building security system in the Persian Gulf region and today’s feature of the Persian Gulf region.
۱.۲.۱ The Importance of the Persian Gulf Geopolitics
The Persian Gulf region has its importance in its particular geo-economic, geostrategic and geopolitical situation. In this regard, the Persian Gulf region has been the focus of regional and extra-regional powers throughout the course of history. Economically, almost two thirds of the proven oil reserves in the world (65percent) and more than one third of the global natural gas reserves (40percent) are located in the Persian Gulf region. Moreover, 20percent of the world’s oil trade is done through this region. According to the latest statistics, almost 23 million barrels of oil (nearly 27 percent of global production) are produced daily by the Persian Gulf states. Also, according to the International Energy Agency’s estimate, in 2025, the Persian Gulf states will be exporting daily 36.4 million barrels of crude oil (Simbar & Ghorbani, 2011). On the other hand, two other advantages of the fossil energies of the Persian Gulf distinguish the region from others: 1) lower costs of exploitation of crude oil and natural gas in comparison with other regions; 2) the crude oil reserves are located close to efficient and developed transport routes with access to various markets (Simbar & Ghorbani, 2011). Geopolitically, the Persian Gulf is located in the area where Europe, Africa and Asia meet. This means that it is directly affected by events in those continents. From the geo-strategic perspective the Persian Gulf has been a military pathway to access other regions that is among the factors making the region important to major powers of the world.
The major indexes and geopolitical feature of the region is its highest volume of fossil fuel exports to the world. Proven crude oil reserves of the Persian Gulf coastal states of Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Bahrain stand at around 65percent of the world’s total oil reserves and 28percent of the global oil supplies. Saudi Arabia has nearly 25percent of the world’s crude oil reserves, followed by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and the UAE. Therefore, the four Persian Gulf coastal states of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and Kuwait, jointly possess over 55percent of proven global oil reserves. So Persian Gulf is the most well-known energy pole of the world (Asif & Khan, 2009).
Figure 2: Distribution of global Oil Reserves. (EIA, 2009)
The Persian Gulf coastal states (Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar and Yemen) also score high in terms of crude oil production. In 2002, they produced 27percent of the world’s total production. The region’s natural gas reserves stand at around 45percent of world’s total gas reserves. According to energy international agency (2006), approximately 80percent of all